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每经热评:规范信用卡资金用途 银行源头“设闸”是关键

2024-07-12 20:47:54栏目:评测
TAG: 贝贝 社交

原标题:每经热评|规范信用卡资金用途 银行源头“设闸”是关键

每经评论员 李玉雯

近期,、、等多家银行发布公告规范信用卡资金用途,强调不得用于购房、投资、生产经营、偿还债务等非消费领域,以及不得通过虚假交易套现用卡。银行表示,若信用卡用于非消费领域交易,可能会导致交易失败,银行可采取降额、停卡、终止分期等措施。

信用卡是消费金融的重要组成部分,在便利群众支付和日常消费等方面发挥了很大作用,但近年来频繁出现信用卡产品偏离消费属性等乱象,尤其是部分套现资金违规流入楼市股市等,积聚了风险隐患。

实际上,监管曾多次明确信用卡资金限制或禁止流向的领域,但为何信用卡违规使用的现象屡禁不止?

一方面,从持卡人的角度而言,由于信用卡存在免息期,因此利用信用卡套现的实际成本会远低于取现和现金分期,部分持卡人便存在侥幸心理,借助信用卡套现来实现经营资金周转,或撬动杠杆进行购房、投资等,顺带“养卡提额兑积分”。

此外,近年来受疫情等因素冲击,部分持卡人收入受到影响,还款压力加大。央行近期披露的统计数据显示,截至今年一季度末,信用卡逾期半年未偿信贷总额926.76亿元,环比增长7.71%,显示信用卡逾期压力有所增加。在此背景下,部分持卡人过度依赖信用卡透支消费,甚至陷入“以贷还贷”“以卡养卡”的恶性循环,导致个人及家庭财务压力倍增。

另一方面,从发卡行的角度而言,此前为了争夺客户、抢占市场份额,银行过度办卡、承诺高额授信换取客户满意度等现象屡见不鲜,所谓的资金用途管控也并没有真正落到实处。

事实上,在激烈的行业竞争中,银行普遍会陷入规模思维下的囚徒困境,不默许一些行为,竞争对手就可能凭借非常规手段超车。为了追求发卡量和交易量,对于信用卡资金套现、流入政策禁止领域等现象,部分银行往往会选择睁一只眼闭一只眼,并不会从严约束,甚至相关员工的绩效考核与薪酬也一味地仅与业务量挂钩。多家银行曾因为信用卡资金流向管控缺位而领到监管罚单。

笔者认为,规范信用卡资金用途,银行源头“设闸”是关键。

一方面,银行要摒弃急功近利的心态,改变过去“跑马圈地”式的发展思维,不能单一地以发卡量、客户量、市场占有率等作为业务发展的衡量标准,现阶段要将合规管控放在更重要的位置,审慎稳健地开展信用卡业务。

例如,多维度严格审核信用卡申领者的信用资质、办卡用途等;合理设置授信额度并实施动态管理,落实“刚性扣减”,严格防范多头借贷风险;在发卡营销等环节,加强对员工的合规培训。

另一方面,在信用卡资金交易管控方面,除了明确限制非消费类交易,银行更加需要不断提升风控水平,提升交易监测分析和调查核实能力,完善风险预警指标并健全拦截机制,对可疑信用卡、可疑交易依法采取管控措施,严格防控套现、欺诈等风险,维护信用卡交易安全。

此外,消费者自身也应当树立科学理性的消费观念,合理规范地使用信用卡。在行为约束方面,监管可加大对违规用卡行为的惩戒力度,将恶意套取银行信贷资金等行为纳入征信系统,提升违规成本,从而遏制资金流入政策限制领域。

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